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In depth article

Background

The purpose of developing Probiozym was to make a product for protein intolerance and disturbed gut flora. By screening bacterial strains, we have chosen strains with great capacity to break down harmful food peptides. We have achieved this by searching for strains with high levels of the appropriate peptidases.

For a probiotic to be effective in the gut, the bacteria must be able to colonize the intestinal mucosal surface. For this reason, we have chosen strains which adhere readily to colon epithelial cells. Bacteria with good adhesive properties will also be more successful in displacing pathogenic organisms.

Probiozym consists of 4 different strains of lactic acid bacteria. These are bacteria which complement each other in many ways. Based on the properies of these strains, Probiozym will be useful in several conditions where protein intolerance and disrupted gut flora are involved:

- Autism
- ADHD
- Inflammatory intestinal disorders
- Irritable bowel syndrome
- Fibromyalgia
- Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)
- Reestablisment of the gut flora following antibiotic treatment

Probiozym - Contents per capsule

Number of bacteria: 10·109 (10 bill.) CFU

Lactobacillus rhamnosus NEU 427

50,0 mg

Lactobacillus crispatus NEU 458

50,0 mg

Lactobacillus acidophilus

50,0 mg

Bifidobacterium bifidum

2,5 mg

Fructooligosaccharides (FOS)

137,5 mg

Magnesiumstearate

4,0 mg

Silica

6,0 mg

Vegetable capsule

72,0 mg

Net weight

300,0 mg

Total weight

372,0 mg

The capsule is made of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC).

 

Properties of the bacterial strains

Lactobacillus rhamnosus NEU 427 and Lactobacillus crispatus NEU 458 are strains isolated and tested by Neurozym Pharma AS. These strains have been isolated from healthy humans and studied in vitro. In the selection of probiotic strains, the deciding factor has been the ability to colonize mucosal surface and to break down harmful food peptides.


Lactobacillus rhamnosus NEU 427

Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a species, quite commonly used in probiotics. This species also includes Lb. rhamnosus GG (LGG) which is much used in probiotic dairy products. Lb. rhamnosus NEU 427 differs from LGG by displaying better adherence to human intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Lb. rhamnosus NEU 427 has high levels of certain peptidases, enzymes with the ability to break down pathogenic peptides from casein and gluten. Lb. rhamnosus NEU 427 is the only strain we know is capable of breaking down dermorphin.

Lactobacillus crispatus NEU 458

Lactobacillus crispatus is a species seldom used in probiotic products. This is probably due to high production costs. Lb. crispatus NEU 458 is highly adherent, just like Lb. rhamnosus NEU 427. However, the main reason why this strain has been chosen is its outstanding ability to break down food peptides.

Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum

These two bacterial strains are commercial strains often used together in combination. Clinical trials have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum inactivate clostridial toxins which play a role in the disturbed gut flora of autistic children (Plummer SF, 2005) and (Madden JA, 2005). Lb. acidophilus is the species most commonly used in probiotics, and is said to have many positive health effects. This is why these strains are included in the product.

 

Research


Adhesion to cultured human epithelial cells

Adhesion to mucosal surface epithel is crucial to the bacteria's ability to colonize the gut.

Neurozym Pharma AS has examined the adhesive properties of several bacterial strains and compared our strains to other commercially available strains. The results are shown in fig. 1.

pzfig1en.gif
Figure 1. Adherence of probiotic lactic acid bacteria to the HEp-2 and Caco-2 cell lines. The latter is a colon cell line. Lb. rhamnosus NEU 427 and Lb. crispatus NEU 458 from Probiozym are shown in blue colour and compared to 5 other probiotic products (A - E). Product A and E are multistrain probiotics.

Conclusion: Lactobacillus rhamnosus NEU 427 and Lactobacillus crispatus NEU 458 from Probiozym have significantly better adhesive properties than the other products it has been compared to. Our strains will have greater ability to colonize the intestinal mucosal surface, which is essensial for the effectiveness of a probiotic.

Breakdown of opioid food peptides

Opioid peptides originating from food proteins are shown to play an important role in the patogenesis in protein intolerance. In autistics, increased excretion of such peptides in urine is seen. This is due to reduced breakdown (lack of peptidases/enzymes) or increased uptake in the gut (caused by intestinal inflammation). In selecting strains for this product, the ability of the bacteria to break down peptides has been given decisive weight. Examples of breakdown curves are shown in figure 2 and 3.

pzfig2en.gif
Figure 2: Breakdown of ß-casomorphin 7 with enzyme extracts from Lb. rhamnosus NEU 427 and Lb. crispatus NEU 458 from Probiozym.

pzfig3en.gif
Figure 3: Breakdown of gluten exorphin A5 with enzyme extracts from
Lb. rhamnosus NEU 427 and Lb. crispatus NEU 458 from Probiozym.

We have similar results for the following peptides: ß-casomorphin 1-4 amide, ß-casomorphin 5, ß-casomorphin 7, gluten exorphin C and dermorphin.

Conclusion: Lactobacillus rhamnosus NEU 427 and Lactobacillus crispatus NEU 458 from Probiozym efficiently break down opioid food peptides. These bacteria have the necessary qualities to successfully remove pathogenic peptides from casein and gluten.

Possible side effects of Probiozym

When a patient starts using probiotics, he or she will sometimes experience abdominal symptoms. These may be diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, gas etc.

This phenomenon is often called the Herxheimer reaction. This is a term which was born in the early days of penicillin, and is named after the German dermatologist who first described it. When treating patients with penicillin, it was sometimes observed than the patient's condition worsened shortly after the treatment was initiated. The cause was that large numbers of pathogenic bacteria were killed by the penicillin and released large amounts of bacterial toxins. This reaction was actually seen as a positive one since it proved that the penicillin worked! Lactic acid bacteria release proteins (bacteriocins) which may kill pathogens in a similar way. A reaction resembling Herxheimer may therefore arise when probiotic treatment is started. The Herxheimer reaction is temporary and should last no more than a few days.

What to do

What you should do depends on how bad the symptoms are. You could quit using Probiozym altogether and reintroduce it using a lower dosage when the symptoms have subsided. After a while you should be able to increase the dosage again. Alternatively, you may choose to simply reduce the dosage until the side effects are tolerable and later increase the dosage gradually.

Important

If the symptoms have not subsided then Probiozym use is terminated, you must consider the possibility of another cause of the symptoms. It is possible that by coincidence, the symptoms of something else started simultanously with the onset of the Probiozym treatment.

 

References

Plummer SF, Garaiova I, Sarvotham T, Cottrell SL, Le Scouiller S, Weaver MA, Tang J, Dee P, Hunter J.
Effects of probiotics on the composition of the intestinal microbiota following antibiotic therapy.
Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2005 Jul;26(1):69-74.


Madden JA, Plummer SF, Tang J, Garaiova I, Plummer NT, Herbison M, Hunter JO, Shimada T, Cheng L, Shirakawa T.
Effect of probiotics on preventing disruption of the intestinal microflora following antibiotic therapy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2005 Jun;5(6):1091-7.  

Neurozym Biotech AS
Murbræk, N-7760 Snåsa 
Phone: (+47) 741 51 500
E-mail: post@neurozym.com 

 



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